A rapid thermal processor provides precise control over the firing profile for metal contacts and diffusions. The SHS-280M tool incorporates 38 lamps distributed at the top, bottom, and sides of the chamber for precise control over temperature. At the substrate level, thermal uniformity is further enhanced by the use of carbide coated graphite susceptors which can accommodate everything from pieces up to 156 mm square substrates. For most operations (e.g., above 300 °C), a pyrometer, coupled to PID control, is used to monitor tool temperature and attain desired temperature profiles. Maximum temperature in the tool is 1100 °C, and annealing ambients of Ar, N2, O2, and forming gas (H2/N2) are available.